工业制造制动化 应用了机器学习的人机交互问题解决

工业制造制动化 应用了机器学习的人机交互问题解决 李翰 对于现代制造业来说,自动化机器人设备的使用已经无处不在,例如常规的机械手,以及被应用在智能仓库中的自动引导运输车(Auto-guided Vehicle)。然而,在绝大多数的工作环境中,人类操作者仍然无法被完全取代。这带来一个问题:人机的交互。对于一个受到监控的系统而言,灵活且不受控的人类给工序带来了极大的干扰和不可预见性。这使得自动化管控系统的建模和优化变得更具挑战性。因此,为了在更大的范围内应用自动化机器人设备,工业制造领域需要一个更具适应性的自主决策系统。以强化学习代理进行系统建模就是方案之一, 由强化学习训练出来的自动化系统将拥有更高的适应能力,使其可以根据观察到的信息来对系统策略做出调整。 计算机运算能力的进步使得现代工业生产获得了多方面的进步,这些进步主要是通过对环境的感知捕捉,并且将这个过程中的生成的数据进行适当的数据处理来实现的。将生产工作的工序,事件用各类传感器捕获,处理,分析使得创建数字化制造系统成为可能。所谓智能制造正是基于上述系统所收集到的信号进行建模,预测,优化的产物。 结合硬件和软件,并能够将控制过程数字化的系统被称CPS(Cyber-Physical-System),先进的系统能够根据这些数据进行适应和自主决策。如何将各个步骤数字化本身就是一个非常有挑战性的工作,在此之上,数字化表示的生产工序会跟着系统的升级而变得更加详细,现有的数据等级结构在面对着更大的数据量时存在着一些问题。为了解决这些问题以实现数据自适应和自主决策,系统将不同的任务分配给系统内的代理模块。每个代理都拥有自主权,独立处理本地的数据以及决策,并且根据自身积累的经验进行学习、优化。 最近的这些系统利用机器学习(基于神经网络算法)来自动化每个代理的控制和分析过程,根据每个代理的累积经验进行优化,并且控制整个系统的决策流程。 在工业制造领域,机器学习已经以各种方式得到了应用,如前文所述,他是实现自主CPS的核心驱动力。监督学习技术已经为现有的系统提供了非常先进的预测系统,这类系统可以通过数据中提取的更详细、更准确的信息来解决维护、生产力优化、物流优化、动态模拟模型的问题。最近,以强化学习为主的深度学习的进步进一步的改进了这些预测模型,这主要体现在计算机视觉能力上。更精确的对周围环境的掌控,进一步优化了CPS预测周围环境以及和周围联动、协调的能力。 如上文所述,CPS需要考虑到和人类同事在生产过程中的交互,不论是直接的交互,或者是时序的交互。从系统层面来讲,系统需要考虑到不同分区如何观察人类行为,并在内部(系统内的多个数据处理的代理)以及外部(环境、人类同事)进行相互适应以打成统一目标。这方面的工作在人机交互的设计中非常重要,因为人类不受系统控制,且人类的工作状态也会根据外部因素(比如疲劳)进行实时改变。 在一些直接合作的情况(人类和机器人一起执行一个动作,而非单纯的协调双方的动作), 人机合作任务已经受益于带有人机交互能力的智能控制系统的引入,尤其是那些直接涉及到物理合作的项目。比如说让机器人去处理一些高难度的任务,并且使用机器学习技术来提高此类任务的精度和协调性,或者让机器人去相对轻松的操作一些大型的组件。这类任务同样也用到了类似的学习算法来进行机器人的教学一次来完成一些复杂的制造工序,比如果复合材料的叠层和焊接制造(这道工序需要极高的灵活度,而且必须达到和专业人类同等的光滑度)。 其他应用则侧重于被动的合作形式,比如说识别当前工作环境下人员的专业程度、结合环境的状况或者直接观察、判断人员的状态,然后以此给出相应的提示,警告或者优化方案。这类技术在手势控制方案上也同样有效,并且还有延展到更多人机交互的趋势:通过预测认为因素对人的性能影响,使得机器可以根据人效率的改变来做出适应性的行为。 总而言之,因为强化学习对CPS感知、预测、决策能力的提升,这项技术将会在现代化工业智能生产的领域上解决优化以人机交互需求为主的问题。这将从根本上解决由人类行为的不确定因素所造成的隐患,诸如人类效率下降导致的生产流程失误,未经授权的访问或者未经授权行为的制止,以及将人类也作为对象的生产监控、优化。集成了人机交互能力的CPS系统应该将会成为工业制造领域发展的趋势。

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Online Education

Online education has been rapidly growing over the last few years. Many schools and colleges have been improving their online courses for students to take. Although the scores and outcomes of many students have been shown to be lower through online school than in-person classes, the curriculum for online programs and education is continuously improving. The improvement of online classes also helps those not in access to such education. There are many populations that are not able educational opportunities either due to their location or their economy. Presently, the online…

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Data Science for Healthcare: The Future of Care

Data Science for Healthcare: The Future of Care Introduction Introduction: As the world moves towards ever more complex medical diagnoses and treatments, data science is essential to make informed decisions. healthcare organizations are already using data science to improve patient care, but there is much more to come. In this article, we’ll explore the key components of data science for healthcare and how it can be used to improve care in the future. What is Data Science. Data science is the application of machine learning and data reduction techniques to…

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Net neutrality win: US FCC reclassifies broadband as a public utility, bans internet “fast lanes”

The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) today voted 3-2 to uphold the principles of network neutrality – that is, to force Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to treat all web traffic as equal. This prevents ISPs from being able to throttle or block users’ connections to certain websites, or to offer “Internet fast lanes” whereby large websites could pay for their content to be delivered at a higher speed. Open Internet advocates see this as a huge step to protect the internet’s current status as a free and open platform…

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Quantum Computing May Be Moving Out of Science Fiction

Quantum computing may still sound like the stuff of science fiction, but in another five or 10 years, it could be part of our reality. “It’s still mostly sci-fi for now,” said Charles King, an analyst with Pund-IT. “Systems are still pretty rudimentary. Though they perform some specific kinds of calculations faster than traditional computers, they are defined by their limitations. When true, fully operable quantum systems come online, they will force the IT industry, public and private sector organizations and individuals to fundamentally rethink certain kinds of problems and…

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The Best Ways to Use Data Science in Your Business

The Best Ways to Use Data Science in Your Business Introduction: As businesses grow, they need to employ data science in order to make informed decisions. Whether you’re a startup just starting up or an established company looking to update your data analysis strategy, there are a few things you need to keep in mind when using data science in your business. How to Use Data Science in Your Business. Data science is the process of solving complex problems with data. It helps businesses make decisions based on data, and…

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Wireless Gravestone Tech Will Broadcast Your Awesomeness to Posterity

For those people seeking some long-term postmortem respect, you could always go the route of theRoyal Tenenbaum epitaph and have your hyperbolic greatness engraved upon a headstone. But we all know weather eventually gets the better of those words, and besides: Why settle for one measly sentence when you could speak directly to your descendants from beyond the grave? The Objecs company has the answer: RosettaStone “technology enhanced memorial products,” which, preloaded with your autobiographical information, will attach to your grave. From Discovery News: When your great-great-great granddaughter stops by sometime in the…

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IT 

Error fix for long-lived qubits brings quantum computers nearer

By Jacob Aron Useful quantum computers are one step closer, thanks to the latest demonstration of a technique designed to stop them making mistakes. Quantum computers store information as quantum bits, or qubits. Unlike binary bits, which store a 0 or a 1, qubits can hold a mixture of both states at the same time, boosting their computing potential for certain types of problems. But qubits are fragile – their quantum nature means they can’t hold data for long before errors creep in. So researchers wanting to build large-scale computers invented quantum…

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The positive impact of online payment on the Chinese economy

The positive impact of online payment on the Chinese economy Recent years have witnessed the development of digital economics, which has aroused a heated debate on online payment exert impact on the advantageous impact to the economy in China. Under this circumstance, I prefer to analyze this situation. To begin with, payment through the virtual internet has been and is going to promote the specialized division of labor and technological progress and therefore to improve the productivity of the Chinese economy. Digital currency in time and space can connect business…

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大疆无人机在农业上的运用和讨论

大疆无人机在农业上的运用和讨论 技术的更新日新月异,时代带给我们许多更方便的科技,而无人机便是里面值得一说的产品,因为它不仅仅改善了我们的生活,也让农业生产有进一步的提升。大疆,作为整个无人机领域的佼佼者,我便从他开始说起。2015年,大疆发布了他们公司的第一台产品——MG-1 农业植保机. MG-1给整个农业领域以及无人机领域都带来了巨大的影响,然而用户不只是关心的是MG-1这个产品本身,更多的是怎样与传统农作方式的衔接并且开拓出了一种全新的工作模式进而对未来无人机的改进作出想法。 在传统的农药喷洒方式中,农民大多会使用一些手提式喷洒设备,但是这样的农作方式通常会影响菜苗的发育以及对人体造成伤害. 而大疆无人机设备却能解决这一系列痛点,农民们仅需要一人就可以对整片农田进行作业,而传统的农业需要多人,多机械,长时间. 这无疑会耗费大量的人力物力成本,而无人机毫无疑问可以减少大部分花在农业机器(尤其是喷洒设备)上的成本.这大大提高了工作效率(约40-50倍的人工效率)并且减少了农民的农作压力. 在2018,中国农业无人机保有量突破2万大关,年度作业面积突破1亿亩次,但问题也接踵而至,无人机尚且还算是个新兴领域,尤其是对于初次踏入农业领域的大疆. 如何做到无人机的广泛化使用成为了大疆需要面对的主要问题. 在中国,大部分的农民的受教育程度并不高(高中以上文化程度仅占11.62%),所以学习无人机的成本也会因此变高.其次,无人机的在农业上的涉足领域暂时还过于狭窄,大疆需要拓展无人机的功能,例如运用红外技术实时监测土壤湿度和温度以及特定时间的自动化收割.为了让无人机做到真正的无人农作,大疆可以通过激光脉冲对农场地形进行地理分析,并让电脑进行运算做到误差不大的自动判断系统,或是做出更简单的范围系统。进而使用通讯技术控制技术对更多农业设备进行联动以及操作。只需要使用者告诉无人机需要管理的区域,无人机便可以自动分析出最有效的处理办法,分析以及控制农业设备对这片区域进行播种,施肥,灌溉,除虫甚至收割。 时至今日,大疆在农业领域已经进行了大量的拓展,他们的新型产品也做出了播撒系统以及地形绘制来帮助农民进行更好的农作. 其次他们也尝试和当地政府合作来分配技术人员对农民进行无人机的科普以及教学来使无人机被更广泛的使用. 希望在不久的将来,我们会看见中国农业的全面无人机化 王威棋

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